Create a polynomial ring using the usual mathematical notation.

Notice that after assignment to a global variable, Macaulay2 knows the ring's name, and this name is used when printing the ring.The original description of the ring can be recovered with describe.

Use the following subscript notation to obtain 0,1, or any multiple of 1, as elements in the ring.

Obtain the variables (generators) of the ring by subscripting the name of the ring. As always in Macaulay2, indexing starts at 0.

The number of variables is provided by numgens.

(See apply and sum.) Use generators to obtain a list of the variables of the ring.

A matrix (with one row) containing the variables of the ring can be obtained using vars(Ring).

The index of a variable:

The coefficient ring can be recovered with coefficientRing.

A random homogeneous element can be obtained with random.

A basis of the subspace of ring elements of a given degree can be obtained in matrix form with basis.

We may construct polynomial rings over polynomial rings.

When displaying an element of an iterated polynomial ring, parentheses are used to organize the coefficients recursively, which may themselves be polynomials.

Variable names may be words.

There are various other ways to specify the variables in a polynomial ring. A sequence of variables can be obtained as follows.

In this example, if you had previously assigned either b or k a value that was not a ring generator, then Macaulay2 would complain about this: it would no longer understand what variables you wanted. To get around this, we could either do

or we may obtain the single-letter variables with vars.

Subscripted variables can be used, provided the base for the subscripted variable has not been used for something else.

Sequences of subscripted variables can also be used.

The subscripts can be much more general, but care is required when using symbols as subscripts, for the symbols may acquire values later that would interfere with your original use of them as symbols. Thus you should protect symbols that will be used in this way.

Polynomial rings over polynomial rings work:

Some things to watch out for when using polynomial rings:

i1 : R = QQ[x,y,z]; |

i2 : R o2 = R o2 : PolynomialRing |

i3 : describe R o3 = QQ[x..z, Degrees => {3:1}, Heft => {1}, MonomialOrder => {MonomialSize => 32}, DegreeRank => 1] {GRevLex => {3:1} } {Position => Up } |

i4 : 0_R o4 = 0 o4 : R |

i5 : 1_R o5 = 1 o5 : R |

i6 : 11_R o6 = 11 o6 : R |

i7 : R_0^10+R_1^3+R_2 10 3 o7 = x + y + z o7 : R |

i8 : numgens R o8 = 3 |

i9 : apply(numgens R, i -> R_i^i) 2 o9 = {1, y, z } o9 : List |

i10 : sum(numgens R, i -> R_i^i) 2 o10 = z + y + 1 o10 : R |

i11 : gens R o11 = {x, y, z} o11 : List |

i12 : vars R o12 = | x y z | 1 3 o12 : Matrix R <--- R |

i13 : index x, index y, index z o13 = (0, 1, 2) o13 : Sequence |

i14 : coefficientRing R o14 = QQ o14 : Ring |

i15 : random(2,R) 9 2 1 1 2 9 3 2 o15 = -x + -x*y + -y + -x*z + y*z + -z 2 2 2 4 4 o15 : R |

i16 : basis(2,R) o16 = | x2 xy xz y2 yz z2 | 1 6 o16 : Matrix R <--- R |

i17 : ZZ[a,b,c][d,e,f]; |

i18 : (a+d+1)^2 2 2 o18 = d + (2a + 2)d + a + 2a + 1 o18 : ZZ[a, b, c][d, e, f] |

i19 : QQ[rho,sigma,tau]; |

i20 : (rho - sigma)^2 2 2 o20 = rho - 2rho*sigma + sigma o20 : QQ[rho, sigma, tau] |

i21 : ZZ[b..k]; |

i22 : ZZ[symbol b .. symbol k]; |

i23 : vars (0..4) o23 = (a, b, c, d, e) o23 : Sequence |

i24 : ZZ[vars (0..4),vars(26..30),vars 51] o24 = ZZ[a, b, c, d, e, A, B, C, D, E, Z] o24 : PolynomialRing |

i25 : ZZ[t,p_0,p_1,q_0,q_1]; |

i26 : ZZ[p_(0,0) .. p_(2,1),q_0..q_5] o26 = ZZ[p , p , p , p , p , p , q , q , q , q , q , q ] 0,0 0,1 1,0 1,1 2,0 2,1 0 1 2 3 4 5 o26 : PolynomialRing |

i27 : (p_(0,0)+q_2-1)^2 2 2 o27 = p + 2p q + q - 2p - 2q + 1 0,0 0,0 2 2 0,0 2 o27 : ZZ[p , p , p , p , p , p , q , q , q , q , q , q ] 0,0 0,1 1,0 1,1 2,0 2,1 0 1 2 3 4 5 |

i28 : protect xx; protect yy; protect zz; |

i31 : ZZ[ee_[xx],ee_[yy],ee_[zz]] o31 = ZZ[ee , ee , ee ] [xx] [yy] [zz] o31 : PolynomialRing |

i32 : R = QQ[a,b][x] o32 = R o32 : PolynomialRing |

i33 : (a+b+x)^3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 o33 = x + (3a + 3b)x + (3a + 6a*b + 3b )x + a + 3a b + 3a*b + b o33 : R |

Internally, the polynomials in such towers are expressed in terms of a flattened monoid containing all the variables, obtainable with the key FlatMonoid.

i34 : R.FlatMonoid o34 = monoid[x, a..b, Degrees => {{1}, 2:{0}}, Heft => {2:1}, MonomialOrder => {MonomialSize => 32}, DegreeRank => 2] {0} {1} {GRevLex => {1} } {Position => Up } {GRevLex => {2:1} } o34 : GeneralOrderedMonoid |

- Defining a ring twice gives different rings, as far as Macaulay2 is concerned: We use the strict comparison operator === to demonstrate this.

Thus it is a good idea to assign a new ring to a variable for future reference.i35 : ZZ[a,b,c] === ZZ[a,b,c] o35 = false